In support of World Autism Awareness Week, we speak with Dr Hayley Van Zwanenberg, Consultant Child and Adolescent Psychiatrist, to understand Autism further. Autism spectrum disorder (ASD) is an extremely complex condition that affects social interaction, communication, interests and behaviour in both children and adults. In order to ensure every individual with Autism receives the correct care and support throughout life, it is important the condition is diagnosed as early as possible.

ASD affects 1 in 68 children in the UK, with 4 boys being diagnosed for every 1 girl. Diagnosis is often based on observation of atypical behaviours and although there is evidence to suggest that the disorder can be inherited, no single genetic cause for ASD has ever been identified. This makes it all the more difficult to identify and diagnose.

Children with ASD can present in many different ways. In a GP surgery, you are likely to encounter the following, which may indicate to you a child is struggling with Autism:

  • Presenting with 'meltdown' like behaviour
  • The child is showing defiance at home and at school
  • The child's parent says they have difficulty making friends
  • Anxiety and stress is evident in the child, triggered by life changes
  • The individual presents with selective mutism
  • Parents feel their child is acting differently

Being diagnosed with Autism can be an extremely daunting time but this is the first and most important step. Explaining that the diagnosis will be beneficial to all involved and will help the child and the family to feel safe, comfortable and informed. Other important things to consider include:

  • Offering the child as much structure as possible at home, school and at the GP surgery
  • Giving as much warning as possible if there will be changes in usual routine
  • Providing visual templates to explain changes in routine or plans

In this article, we discuss the signs and symptoms of Autism further, and how this condition can be diagnosed.

How is autism likely to present in your surgery?

The most common psychiatric and cognitive co-morbidities that are identified with ASD include:

  • Social anxiety disorder
  • Oppositional defiant disorder
  • Attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD)
  • Intellectual disability

11%-39% of individuals with ASD also have epilepsy and these individuals are more likely to have severe social impairments than those diagnosed with ASD only. Co-morbid sleep disturbance is indicated in 50%-80% of children with ASD and is correlated with daytime problem behaviours.

Why is it important to diagnose autism and how do you persuade parents of this?

It is so important to diagnose ASD, as without a diagnosis this can make so many areas of life difficult, distressing and bewildering for the undiagnosed person. This can result in difficult behaviours and social isolation and young people who do not attain their best ability in school. Once diagnosed, the young person can understand themselves better and realise that are not alone in the way they feel. Their parents and the professionals working with them can all learn how best to help them. The right services can be accessed and adaptions can be put into place in the educational setting. A diagnosis can prevent so much distress as the child develops and can stop further psychiatric illnesses developing. Some young people with ASD do benefit from medication to help with anxiety or low mood or to help manage some behaviours, but these would need to be prescribed by a Child and Adolescent Psychiatrist.

It is important to explain to parents and young people there are so many positives about ASD. Some of the most successful people in the country have a diagnosis of ASD. They can still achieve whatever they wish in life. People with ASD often make really loyal friends but may have a smaller group of friends. They become good employees, as if they work in their areas of interest, they know all there is to know about the subject. They think about problems in a different way and often find unique solutions.

Signs to look out for if you are concerned about a child in your surgery

  • Does the child play imaginatively? Ask what the child plays with and how they play with the toys. Often ASD children play in the same way most of the time; they do not make up a variety of stories, put on voices or role play. If they do play imaginatively it is often copied off television or off a sibling and is very repetitive. They may enjoy lining toys up or putting them in sets
  • Does the child seek to mix with children their own age and do so appropriately? Often ASD children prefer to play on their own and watch other children their age from a distance. They may struggle to share with others, take turns, lose a game and only approach other children to take something off them or to insist they play the game they want, by their rules. Birthday parties can be particularly difficult for them or group activities
  • Does the child become quite obsessive about their interests almost to the exclusion of other topics or toys? They may talk repetitively on their topic of interest but find it hard to have conversations about other things or to make small talk
  • Making appropriate eye contact can be very difficult for some young people with ASD. Often these young people do not have a variety of gestures, such as:

- Descriptive gestures (e.g. moving their hand to demonstrate a drink when they are thirsty
- Emotional gestures (e.g. patting friends on the back to say well done)
- Instrumental gestures (e.g. pointing to demonstrate what they want or to share interests)
- Limited variety of facial expressions

  • How does the child cope with change? ASD children often find change in plans very distressing - perhaps new clothes or new shoes difficult to cope with, and even small changes in the environment at home can cause distress. Holidays somewhere new can be particularly difficult as there is so much change and a different routine
  • ASD children usually like routine - they may insist on the same seat at the dinner table or the same plate to eat off. They may wish for things to happen in the same order, for example at bedtime, or they may insist parents say the same words each night a certain way
  • ASD children often have some form of sensory sensitivity. There may be certain noises that really upset them or they may be irritated by washing labels in clothes, or certain textures of clothes. They may also be fussy over food due to the dislike of the texture

How is autism diagnosed?

There is not a 'gold-standard' test for autism. Usually diagnosis involves:

  • A psychiatric assessment to rule in or out other diagnoses
  • A very detailed developmental history to ascertain autistic traits from a young age
  • An autism diagnostic observation schedule (ADOS) which takes about an hour with a Clinician and the patient interacting and doing tasks together so the Clinician can observe the young person's social interactions, communication, emotional understanding and imagination

What advice can you give in your clinic?

  • To accept a referral for a diagnostic assessment - the diagnosis will be beneficial not detrimental and there are many risks for the young person if they have undiagnosed ASD that can be reduced with a diagnosis
  • To allow the young person as much structure as possible at home and at school
  • To give warning as much in advance as possible if there will be change to their routine in school or at home. This includes change of seating in school, if there is a different teacher, if the plan for the afternoon timetable changes and so on
  • Offer visual timetables to explain their structure and routine on a daily basis and talk through any changes to this with them and repeat this as much as possible. If there is a school trip they need a visual timetable of this ideally a week in advance that they talk through each day
  • To ask the school to offer social stories and emotional literacy work on a 1:1 basis to the young person. Social story books and emotional literacy books for children with ASD can easily be sourced online
  • Parents could contact the national autistic society at www.autistic.org.uk to gather more information and advice regarding sourcing a diagnosis and how to help their child while awaiting a diagnosis

What can specialist services such as the Priory offer?

Priory is in a unique position as it offers services throughout the lifespan of those with ASD. Services are available to offer a diagnostic assessment but the group also offers treatment plans, special educational school and residential services for adults with autism.

Once a diagnosis is made by a Consultant Psychiatrist, for adults or young people at Priory, clear recommendations are made. Post diagnosis follow up is offered, often involving family therapy to help with psychoeducation regarding which behaviours are due to autism, which are not, and how to manage all unhelpful behaviours.

In some cases medication may be used and this can be prescribed and safely monitored by Priory Clinicians while ensuring the medication is leading to positive outcomes.

For more details on the full range of Priory Services, please call 0800 840 3219 or click here to make an enquiry. Alternatively you can visit our dedicated GP section on the website, by clicking here.