Sudden change is never easy and can often be bewildering. However, for young people on the autism spectrum, it can be especially difficult - ad sometimes distressing - to navigate.
The coronavirus spread has resulted in unavoidable change, leading to the closure of many schools and community settings, with the intention of slowing the pandemic. This has meant that many families are having to change their routines, if not their lives, which is creating unique issues for caregivers and people with autism.
Dr Hayley van Zwanenberg - a child and adolescent psychiatrist at Priory’s Oxford Wellbeing Centre, who works with autistic children and their families - says the important thing to remember is that autistic people, and those who look after them, need to be part of the conversation.
Talking to an autistic child about coronavirus
When discussing coronavirus with your child, Dr van Zwanenberg says: "I would give children facts regarding the coronavirus, and say that we are all in this together, but try not to have the news on the television or radio too much and try to encourage a child not to search for further information on the internet, as misinformation is likely to raise anxiety.
"If they are disappointed about activities being cancelled, consider making a poster with them of the activities to be re-booked when possible, so they know they will not be forgotten."
Planning a new schedule
As usual daily routines will no longer in place, it's important to replace these with new schedules and timetables.
Dr van Zwanenberg says: "Parents and carers will be extremely anxious to minimise any distress to an autistic child, so wherever possible, I would say it’s best to involve the young person in planning a new schedule and routine.
"If the child needs to be at home, leaving the day unstructured is likely to be far more stressful than creating a new timetable to follow."
Managing changes in the family home
Dr van Zwanenberg says that for parents, "it’s really helpful to discuss the consistent behavioural strategies you will use, as needed, with your child so everyone is singing from the same hymn sheet in terms of behavioural boundaries."
For example, if you're starting to find that you can’t get the food that you usually buy on your weekly shop, Dr van Zwanenberg says: "You could consider making an inventory of food that's available to you with your child, and plan meals a few days or a week in advance if possible, so if the food is slightly different from normal, the young person has been given some notice of this."
Dr van Zwanenberg also says that with most of the family being at home, rather than at school or work, it's important to help your child navigate this new environment. "It’s important to consider noise levels in the house if more of you are at home than normal. Due to sensory sensitivities, the young person may become more aroused with more people in the house. Think about how you can minimise this. Does the young person need to use ear defenders at home or listen to their music through head phones?
"Do they have a quiet space they can go to, if needed, with items in that space that will calm them?
"I would try talking to the child about the early warning signs that show they might be becoming over-stimulated. Have an agreement that if they feel these signs or you spot them, there is a code word or a sign they can use, and that's when they can always access their quiet space to calm down."
Maintain a good sleep routine
Dr van Zwanenberg says it's also helpful to try to maintain bedtime routines and good sleep hygiene techniques.
"Sleep is so important to mental state, and I would include:
- No caffeine after midday
- Engaging in some form of exercise, if possible, in the day
- Only using the bed for sleep at night time (not sitting on it on iPads during the day, for example)
- No screens an hour before bed
- Establishing and maintaining a bedtime routine so the body learns the next thing in the routine is sleep
- Go to bed at the same time every day and get up at the same time every day, whether it's a week day or weekend"
Encourage virtual meet-ups
Try to help your child stay in touch with the people they are close to. Dr van Zwanenberg says: "I would encourage some form of contact via the internet or phone with their friends so that social anxieties do not grow when social distancing ceases and they reintegrate with their friends and fellow pupils. There is also useful information from charities, including the National Autistic Society."
Dr van Zwanenberg added that it was important for families to follow all official Public Health England advice around frequent hand-washing and social distancing.