Mental health at work

How the workplace can positively and negatively affect your mental health, and the steps you can take if your job is making you feel stressed, anxious or depressed.

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Contributing clinicians

Dr Jeremy Broadhead, Consultant Psychiatrist at Priory Hospital Hayes Grove

Dr Paul McLaren, Consultant Psychiatrist at Priory Hospital Ticehurst House

Steve Clarke, Hospital Director and Psychotherapist at Priory Hospital Roehampton

Dr Ian Nnatu, Consultant Psychiatrist

How can work affect mental health?

A 40-hour working week adds up to almost a quarter of your life every 7 days. It takes up a lot of your energy, concentration, motivation and time. Given that around one in four people will experience a mental health issue in their lifetime, it’s probably more common in your workplace than you think.

This guide takes a look at the topic of mental health at work, including:

  • The positive and negative effects of work on mental health
  • The signs that work is damaging your mental health
  • How to discuss mental health issues with your employer
  • How to look after your mental health at work

Although workplaces can cause increases in stress and other mental health conditions like anxiety and depression, it’s important to note that employment can also have a positive impact on our wellbeing.

Work gives us a valuable purpose in life, motivating us to get up in the morning and create or achieve something. As social animals, humans also need that daily interaction with the outside world. Work generally allows us to engage socially every day (unless we're working from home), something which is especially important to people who live alone or are otherwise isolated or lonely. The financial benefits of working life also have positive effects on our wellbeing. Money isn’t everything, but having a regular income can reduce financial stress and allow us to engage in activities we enjoy and buy things that we want, depending on how much we earn.

What causes poor mental health at work?

The workplace does bring important benefits to our wellbeing, but the balance can all too easily slide and lead to negative outcomes. Work can be a common cause of depression or severe increases in your stress levels.

The causes of mental health problems at work can be varied. It could be that you’ve been working long hours or that your workload has increased significantly. You might be running to a tight deadline for a major project, or don’t have the support you think you need to do your job to the best of your ability.

Your relationships with colleagues are important too. If you’re being harassed or bullied, or your working relationship with your boss has declined, that can be the source of a decline in your enjoyment of the role and can lead to increases in your levels of stress and anxiety.

Crucially, if these issues are left to continue in the medium or long-term, it often leads to deeper mental health conditions such as depression.

Signs you're struggling with mental health at work

how work affects mental health infographic

Dr Jeremy Broadhead, Consultant Psychiatrist at Priory Hospital Hayes Grove, on the impact of stress:

“Stress, whether physical or mental, must be taken seriously. We all recognise physical strains on our body and the damage that may be caused. For example, if we injure our knee, we don't keeping running on it because it would cause further damage. We take care of it. Psychological stress, as well as being hard to bear and destructive for our lives, can damage the brain. It is too often ignored.

"Too much pressure and uncertainty at work, and difficult relationships there and at home, can cause psychological stress. As the figures show, the result can be psychiatric illness, misuse of alcohol and a change in demeanour."

How to tell if your job is affecting your mental health

When you're at work, it’s important that you try to monitor your attitudes, performance and general mood. There are key indicators that might point towards the possibility that your workplace could be the root cause of a downturn in your mental health. The Health and Safety Executive (HSE) lists the following as key signs of work-related stress:

  • You're unable to cope with the demands of your job
  • You're unable to control the way you do your work
  • You don't get enough information and support at work
  • You're having trouble with relationships at work, or are being bullied
  • You don't fully understand your role and responsibilities
  • You're not engaged when your workplace is going through change

It’s also worth familiarising yourself with the common signs and symptoms of relevant mental health conditions:

Stress symptoms: Unable to switch off or relax, irritability, impatience and sleep disturbances.

Anxiety symptoms: Persistent sense of worry or dread, paranoia, tension, headaches and nausea.

Depression symptoms: Intense feelings of sadnesstearfulness, fatigue and low energy levels.

How to tell your boss you're struggling

Less than 3 in 10 employees are willing to openly speak about their mental health with their employer, but reaching out for support is one of the most effective ways of coping with the issues you’re facing.

You could start by reaching out to a colleague or close friend first; you’ll probably be surprised by how understanding and supportive they are. As and when you feel ready to talk about your mental health with your boss, or other relevant figure in your workplace, the following tips can help:

Email ahead

Sometimes it can be difficult to find the right words in person. Writing things down can help you to collect your thoughts. It might be worth emailing ahead first, giving you a foundation to start from when you do speak face-to-face.

Only disclose how much you feel comfortable with

Disclosing a mental health issue is very personal, so it’s normal to feel uncomfortable bringing it up. It’s entirely your decision on how much you initially share. If you have a diagnosis from your GP, that might be a useful piece of information to share, but otherwise, just touch on how you’re feeling and how it's affecting your work.

Go to the right person

Think carefully about the best person to go to. It could be your boss, or it could be someone in your HR team, who'll be trained to support people experiencing mental health issues and have clear idea of what support is available to you.

Know your rights

The stigma and threat of discrimination is real, so it’s natural to be nervous about bringing up the topic of mental health in the workplace. Thankfully, the law is on your side and today, discriminating against an employee on the basis of mental health is unlawful. Times are changing and you can expect a much more supportive, understanding workplace than in decades gone by.

By speaking up, you're helping yourself and others

If you do choose to speak out, your decision is positively impacting the lives of thousands of people across the UK. Each time someone accepts they aren’t OK, they encourage others to do the same and nudge employers, governments and our wider society towards change.

Dr Paul McLaren, Consultant Psychiatrist at Priory Hospital Ticehurst House, on how we perceive mental health:

"A mental health problem is no different to reporting a problem with your physical health…it just feels different. When we're depressed, we often have strong feelings of shame about how we're feeling. That is not just a psychological reaction but part of the biology of depression. Shame leads us to hiding away but hiding away makes our situation worse in the workplace and elsewhere.”

How to be mentally healthy at work

If work is getting too much for you, there’s lots more you can do alongside speaking to your employer, to make your working life more manageable.

Know the warning signs

There are many symptoms of stress at work, but a key sign that it’s getting too much is when you're unable to manage your workload or unwind after a long day. Are you regularly taking your work home with you? Are you fretting about an upcoming deadline or presentation? These are common triggers for work-related stress, so it’s important to be aware of when they might be kicking in.

Stay organised

Plan out your week or day ahead and create a checklist of things that need to be completed, in priority order. Give yourself enough time to complete each task and schedule regular breaks to avoid burnout. Reward yourself for completing tasks, even if it’s as simple as crossing it off your checklist.

Try some stress-busting techniques

Breathing exercises can be a great way to reduce stress and anxiety and remain clam. Take a long, deep breath while counting for 5 to 8 seconds, then hold it for 5 to 8 seconds. Repeat several times to relieve anxious/stressed feelings. This can help to re-centre you during a busy work day.

Exercise as much as you can

Exercise is a brilliant way to help to relieve stress, so incorporating it into your daily routine, 2 to 3 times a week, can be a quick way of improving your mental health at work. Try running, going to the gym or something like yoga. It takes you away from the daily grind and allows you to focus solely on your health and wellbeing. Even going for a brisk walk during your lunch hour, if you’re able to, can work wonders for your mental health, motivation and wellbeing.

Eat healthily

The importance of a healthy diet on our physical and mental health can’t be underestimated. Try to avoid comfort eating and instead, choose food that increases your energy and gives you sustainable nutrients to get you through the day.

Get professional help

If things are getting too much and you aren’t getting the support you need at work, know that professional help is available. You can speak to your GP, call a support line or contact Priory directly for world class private mental healthcare.

There are many effective treatments for stress, anxiety and depression that will enable you to learn ways of coping and allow you to manage your working life in the long-term. Remember, getting professional help isn't a sign of weakness. By getting help, you're displaying strength, and taking the vital first step to turning your life around.

Steve Clarke, Hospital Director at Priory Hospital Roehampton, on the de-stressing emotional freedom technique (EFT):

"Repetitive finger tapping can sometimes help to release negative emotions such as anxiety. It has been called a psychological version of acupuncture in that it involves making contact with a number of acupuncture points.

"Whilst focusing on your negative emotion, you tap on a ‘meridian’ point (the eyebrow, side of the eye, under eye, under nose, chin, collarbone, under the arm and top of the head) 3 to 7 times, repeating your negative thought in your head. After each emotion, take a deep breath and exhale."


Is an employer responsible for employee mental health?

Yes, employers have a legal responsibility to help their employees. This includes both physical and mental health, and applies to all mental health concerns, no matter if they started before or during your employment. Employers must assess any work-related mental health issues and measure the levels of risk to staff, offering support wherever necessary.

Employees can adapt their own behaviours to try and make work less stressful and damaging to their mental health, but employers have an even more important role to play. A positive workplace culture and working environment come from the very top.

Can I be fired for being off sick with depression?

Under law, an employee’s mental health is treated the same as their physical health. Within the Employment Rights Act 1996, it's possible to be dismissed fairly from your job due to mental health issues like depression (as it is with a physical health issue). If your mental health leaves you unable to do your job properly, then that could be grounds for dismissal.

However, every employer has a responsibility to implement a thorough process before a dismissal takes place. This might include:

  • Investigating the impact that the person’s mental health has on their performance at work
  • Implementing reasonable adjustments (such as new equipment or a change in duties)

Can I be signed off work with stress?

If the level of stress you’re under is affecting your health, you have the right to take some time off work in order to recover. If this is for a period of under 7 days, you can use your employer’s sick leave process to self-certificate your absence due to stress. If you need to be absent for longer than 7 days, you'll need a sick note from a medical professional like your GP. They can suggest a time frame for your return to work.

Once you’ve made your employer aware of your difficulties with stress, they have a responsibility to look at the situation and make necessary steps to limit your stress and protect your health.

What are my rights with mental health at work?

Under the Equality Act 2010, mental health conditions can be considered a disability. That means an employer can't discriminate against you based on that disability, and must make reasonable adjustments to ensure you’re comfortable at work.

Employers have a duty of care to protect and support your physical and mental health. This might include things like carrying out risk assessments or taking steps to build a safe working environment.

If you're struggling with your mental health, you have the right to take a leave of absence in order to rest and recover.

Is it normal for my job to make me anxious?

Feeling stressed or anxious at work isn't unusual. In fact, mental health statistics show that 55% of workers say their workplace negatively affects their mental health. Modern working environments can be challenging and pressurised, but it can be managed if you look after yourself and work with your employer.

Can my boss tell people about my mental health problems?

There's no legal requirement for you to disclose a mental health condition (or any other disability) to your employer (or a potential employer during an interview). However, you might want to consider the benefits of doing so, as employers are obliged to make reasonable adjustments to support you. This is especially true if your mental health issues are affecting your performance at work and changes are needed.

If you reach out to your boss and tell them of your struggles, and some adjustments need to be made, they'll need to tell your HR team who can offer their advice. If you wish to speak to your boss in confidence, mention that during your chat.

Mental health charity, Mind, have detailed information on the legalities of disclosing mental health conditions at work, and how you can tell if your mental health struggles might be considered a disability.

Private medical insurance

We are a registered and approved provider for all of the UK's leading private medical insurers. All of the services we offer at Priory can be funded through private medical insurance. This includes:

  • Mental health treatment
  • Addiction treatment
  • Eating disorder treatment

All clients will have access to our highly skilled and accredited clinicians, many of whom are published experts in their fields of treatment. Whatever your requirements, we're committed to working with you to get your life back on track.

Registered and approved provider

We are a registered and approved provider for all of the UK's leading private medical insurers.

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